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What is Cervical Cancer – Causes and Risk Factors

Guys, did you know?
Cervical cancer is one of the most common neoplastic diseases affecting women,
with a combined worldwide incidence of almost half a million new cases annually,
Second Only To Breast Cancer.

Today we are going to talk about cervical cancer because we all know that January
is a cervical cancer awareness month. so we will discusss about the cervical cancer

1] What is Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.

Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cervical cancer.

2]Types of cervical cancer
The type of cervical cancer that you have helps determine your prognosis and treatment. The main types of cervical cancer are:

Squamous cell carcinoma. This type of cervical cancer begins in the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) lining the outer part of the cervix,
which projects into the vagina. Most cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas.

Adenocarcinoma. This type of cervical cancer begins in the column-shaped glandular cells that line the cervical canal.

3] Causes
Cervix and squamous and glandular cells
Where cervical cancer begins open pop-up dialog box
Cervical cancer begins when healthy cells in the cervix develop changes (mutations) in their DNA.
A cell’s DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do.

Healthy cells grow and multiply at a set rate, eventually dying at a set time.
The mutations tell the cells to grow and multiply out of control, and they don’t die.
The accumulating abnormal cells form a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and
can break off from a tumor to spread (metastasize) elsewhere in the body.

4]Risk Factors

Risk factors for cervical cancer include:

Many sexual partners. The greater your number of sexual partners — and the greater your partner’s number of sexual partners — the greater your chance of acquiring HPV.

Early sexual activity. Having sex at an early age increases your risk of HPV.

Other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Having other STIs — such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and HIV/AIDS — increases your risk of HPV.

A weakened immune system. You may be more likely to develop cervical cancer if your immune system is weakened by another health condition and you have HPV.

Smoking. Smoking is associated with squamous cell cervical cancer.

Exposure to miscarriage prevention drug. If your mother took a drug called diethylstilbestrol (DES) while pregnant in the 1950s, you may have an
increased risk of a certain type of cervical cancer called clear cell adenocarcinoma.

5] Symptoms

Locations of female reproductive organs
Female reproductive systemOpen pop-up dialog box
Early-stage cervical cancer generally produces no signs or symptoms.

Signs and symptoms of more-advanced cervical cancer include:

Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause
Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor
Pelvic pain or pain during intercourse

To reduce your risk of cervical cancer:

Ask your doctor about the HPV vaccine. Receiving a vaccination to prevent HPV infection may reduce your risk of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers. Ask your doctor whether an HPV vaccine is appropriate for you.

Have routine Pap tests. Pap tests can detect precancerous conditions of the cervix, so they can be monitored or treated in order to prevent cervical cancer. Most medical organizations suggest beginning routine Pap tests at age 21 and repeating them every few years.

Practice safe sex. Reduce your risk of cervical cancer by taking measures to prevent sexually transmitted infections, such as using a condom every time you have sex and limiting the number of sexual partners you have.

Don’t smoke. If you don’t smoke, don’t start. If you do smoke, talk to your doctor about strategies to help you quit.